Linux Meaning (All About the Linux Operating System)

Linux Ubuntu

If you know something about Linux, then it’s good and you can explore more about Linux here.
But if you are totally new to the word ‘Linux’ and know nothing about Linux then this article belongs to you. Today you are going to learn about the most revolutionary Operating System of our time that is the Linux Operating System. You’ll also learn about Linux meaning, Linux Ubuntu and something about Kali Linux.


Table of Contents:



Now, Linux Meaning


Linux is an operating system just like Windows or Mac OS. Linux is doing the same task just as another operating system like Windows. It is developed to interact with computer hardware and other application software. The only difference between Linux and other operating system is that Linux comes under free and open source software.



What language is Linux written in?


Most of the things including Linux kernel is written in C and when you come to the apps many of the Linux apps are written in Python and C++.

Know about different Programming Languages



What is the Linux Kernel?


If you know something about the operating system you know that the operating system needs to interact with hardware and software.

The main and core software part of the operating system that handles everything like system calls, resource management, memory management, and device management is known as the kernel.

It handles all other software which helps in interacting with hardware such as a monitor, speaker, printer etc.

If you want to know more about Linux kernel, then you can visit below given Wikipedia Link:


Let’s know about the history of Linux in brief:

The first version of Linux was released in 1991 mid-September by Linus Torvalds. That time Linus Torvalds was studying computer science at the University of Helsinki. He released Linux as open-source. Here an open source means anyone can see the code in which Linux was written with. Also, everyone has the right to study, change the Linux code according to their use for any purpose.

Open Source was first introduced in the year 1983 by Richard Stallman. Richard Stallman was a researcher at the MIT and wanted to create an open source operating system but he couldn’t succeed in it.


Nowadays, 80% of web servers are running Linux. Now, Linux is the operating system for mobile devices, computers, and mainframes. Android which is the world most popular mobile operating system is Linux kernel-based. You can also find Linux in the Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS.


So, in simple words, Linux is the operating system. It is the software which used to control hardware and other software or you can say that Linux is like a bridge between hardware and software. Example of the Linux is your Android OS which we use to control other mobile software such as Android games, music player app, google map etc. and at the same time, it is interconnecting your mobile hardware such as a display, speaker, camera etc. to software related to that particular hardware.



What is Linux Distribution?


Now, you know that Linux is the open source operating system and anyone can edit the code of Linux and use it for their own purpose.

So, many persons or vendors started using Linux for their own purpose and they edit Linux in their own way. This led to many distributions of the Linux. Almost six hundred Linux distribution exist and around five hundred Linux distributions are in active development.

All these distributions contain different software developed for accomplishing a particular goal. Some of them are used on the desktop, while others are developed for servers, mobile phones, television, and tablets.

For e.g., if you want to use Linux for Desktop then you should choose KDE, MATE, GNOME, Unity etc. These Linux distributions are having best user interface, wide range of software compatibility etc. and if you want Linux distributions for your mobile then no doubt Android is the best whereas if you want Linux distribution for server and web hosting then you can choose between Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS etc.

Not all of these distributions are open source and free to use some distributions are commercial such as RHEL by RedHat Inc., Oracle Linux by Oracle Inc., SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.



Here is the list of some popular Linux Distributions:

If you want to know more about Linux distributions, then you can visit this link:



What is Linux Ubuntu?

Ubuntu Linux
The first question is why am I explaining Linux Ubuntu although there are almost 600 other Linux distributions are available?

The answer is the volume of search related to Linux Ubuntu. There are lots of people around 70,000 users per month are searching about Linux Ubuntu which is quite higher in comparison to other Linux distributions.



Now, what is Ubuntu?


Ubuntu is an operating system and it is free and open-source Linux distribution.

Ubuntu is more popular Linux operating system in comparison of other distributions. You can use Ubuntu in your personal computers, servers, IOT devices.

The developer of Ubuntu which is Canonical Ltd. Offered Ubuntu in three official editions:

  • Ubuntu Desktop (for your laptop and desktop)
  • Ubuntu Server (you can use it on the server and the cloud for web hosting)
  • Ubuntu Core (use in IoT devices, robots, Raspberry Pi etc.)



How Linux Ubuntu Developed?


In the open source world where every software is free. One product evolves from other. A similar thing happened with Ubuntu also, Ubuntu is built on the architecture and infrastructure of the Debian operating system and Debian is having Linux kernel.

Many other Linux distributions developed in the same way. For e.g., CentOS and Fedora are having architecture and infrastructure of RedHat and openSUSE is developed from SUSE Linux distributions.

All these distributions are having different supporting software and many software’s are provided along with these distributions.

For e.g., if you are using Ubuntu Desktop then it comes with advanced GUI (Graphical User Interface) and also you can find many installed software such as LibreOffice, audio player and video codec and players. Whereas if you are using Ubuntu Server then it will not have GUI and other desktop software installed by default.

So, these are some common terms under Linux Ubuntu and Linux meaning topic. Let’s move to our next topic of this article. If you want to interact with me, you can comment. I’ll try to answer as soon as possible.



What is Kali Linux and why Kali Linux is best for Ethical Hacking?

If you have heard about Kali Linux, then you might be aware that Kali Linux is the most favourite Linux distribution for Network Security Checker and Hackers.

Kali Linux comes with pre-installed many numbers of penetration testing tools such as

Aircrack-ng, Nmap, Wireshark, Social Engineering tools, Burp Suite and many others. Now, you might be thinking about two questions. First, what is penetration testing and what are these tools I have mentioned above?



So, what is Penetration Testing?

If you know about the network, then you must know that network is the connection of many computers and these computers are connected to a network for a particular purpose and that purpose is to share files among themselves.

Penetration testing used to test the security of the interconnected network or web applications. This is done to enhance IT security. In penetration testing, a person tests the vulnerabilities that may exist in web applications, servers or in the network.

And those tools like Aircrack-ng, Nmap, Wireshark, Social Engineering tools, Burp Suite and many others help in penetration testing by detecting packets and scanning security etc.



List of Linux Commands with Example?

Most of the Linux distributions which are used for personal computers are come in GUI (Graphical User Interface) like windows and Mac OS. So, most of your task can be done easily without using CLI (Command Line Interface).

But if you want to use Linux for your server and you are planning to buy a dedicated hosting service from AWS (Amazon Web Service) or Digital Ocean then you must know about Linux commands.

Here is some list of most used Linux commands:

  1. ‘ls’ Command
  2. ‘cd’ Command
  3. ‘pwd’ Command
  4. ‘mkdir’ Command
  5. ‘touch’ Command
  6. ‘rmdir’ and ‘rm’ Command
  7. ‘cp’ Command
  8. ‘mv’ Command
  9. ‘cat’ Command
  10. ‘less’ Command
  11. ‘|’ Pipe Command
  12. ‘>’ Redirect Command


1. ‘ls’ Command Meaning in Linux


The ‘ls’ command is used to display a list of directory and files inside a directory.

ls Linux Ubuntu


2. ‘cd’ Command Meaning in Linux


The ‘cd’ command is used to change the path of the directory.

Here from the command name ‘cd’, you can understand ‘Change Directory’.

Suppose that you want to change your path from ‘dir1’ to ‘desktop’ then you can simply type ‘cd  /root/Desktop’.

And if you will type ‘cd..’ then terminal will take you one step back from ‘Desktop’ to ‘root’.

cd Linux Ubuntu


3.‘pwd’ Command Meaning in Linux


If you are working in the terminal of the Linux operating system and you don’t know the working directory in which you are working, then you can use ‘pwd’ command. It will show you the current working directory. ‘pwd’ stands for ‘Print Working Directory’.

pwd Linux Ubuntu


4. ‘mkdir’ Command Meaning in Linux


The ‘mkdir’ command is used to create a new directory.

For e.g., if you want to make a directory ‘dir4’ then type ‘mkdir dir4’.

mkdir Linux Ubuntu

You can also make many directories at the same time.

For e.g., if you want to make dir5, dir6, dir7 at the same time then type ‘mkdir dir5 dir6 dir7’ and press enter.


You can also create a directory in a different location. Suppose you want to create a directory in the desktop directory.

Then type command ‘mkdir’ and then full path of the full path of the location. E.g., type command ‘mkdir   /root/Desktop/Dir8’ and press enter.

Here Dir8 is the directory we are creating inside the desktop ditectory.


You can also create many directories inside each other. Like you want to create dire inside ‘dird’ and ‘dird’ inside ‘dirc’ then you’ll have to add ’-p’ in your command.

For e.g., type command ‘mkdir –p  dirc/dird/dire’ and press enter.



5. ‘touch’ Command Meaning in Linux


You can create a file using the ‘touch’ command.

For e.g., if you want to create a ‘file1’ then type ‘touch file1’ and then press enter.

touch Linux Command

You can also create many files at the same time.

E.g., type command ‘touch file2 file3 file4’ and press enter.


For creating a file in different location type command ‘touch’ the full path where you want to create a file and the file name.

E.g., type command ‘touch  /root/Desktop/file.txt’ and then press enter. Here ‘file.txt’ is the name of the file creates inside the Desktop directory.




6. ‘ rmdir’ and ‘rm’ Command Meaning in Linux


The ‘rm’ command is used to remove directories and files whereas ‘rmdir’ command is used to remove only directories.

Also ‘rmdir’ can remove only empty directories whereas ‘rm’ command is used to remove empty as well as non-empty directories.


With the help of the ’rm ’ command, you can remove a file easily but you can’t remove a directory.

For removing a directory with the help of ‘rm’ command you’ll have to add ‘-r’ to your command.

E.g., type command ‘rm –r  dir7’ and press enter and it will confirm you to remove files and directories inside ‘dir7’ directory which you want to remove.


If you want to remove the file without terminal asking you anything then you’ll have to add ‘-f’ to your command.

For e.g., if you want to remove ‘file2’ then type the command ‘rm  –f  file2’ and then press enter and the terminal will not confirm anything.

And add ‘-v ’ to your command if you want to see a summary of the file.

You can combine two commands i.e. ‘rm  -vf  file4’ if you want to remove file4 with a summary.



7. ‘cp’ Command Meaning in Linux


The command ‘cp’ is used to copy files and directories. To copy files and directories you have to type ‘cp source destination’. Here ‘source’ is the path of files and directories which you want to copy and ‘destination’ is the path where you want to copy source files and directories.

E.g., if you want to copy a file ‘1.txt’ to the directory ‘dir4’ then type the command ‘cp 1.txt dir4’.


If you want to copy several files at the same time you can follow the given below example.

E.g., The command for copying file ‘2.txt, 3.txt, 4.txt’ to ‘dir4’ is ‘cp  /root/2.txt  /root/3.txt  /root/4.txt   /root/dir4’.


What if you want to copy a directory?

For copying a directory you have to add ‘-r’ in the ‘cp’ command.

E.g., if you want to copy ‘dir5’ to ‘dirc’ then type the command ‘cp  -r dir5 dirc’ then press enter.



8. ‘mv’ Command Meaning in Linux


The command ‘mv’ is used to move files or directories. To move files or directories type the command ‘mv source destination’.

For e.g., If you want to move a file name ‘1.txt’ to directory ‘Documents’ then type the command ’mv  1.txt Documents’ then press enter.


How Can I Rename file or directory using ‘mv’ Command?

In Linux, you can rename file or directory by typing the command ‘mv name new-name’.

E.g., if you want to rename a file whose name is ‘file1’ to ‘file.txt’ then type the command ‘mv  file1  file.txt’.



9. ‘cat’ Command Meaning in Linux


The command ‘cat’ is used to

  • Display content of a file.
  • Create a file using ‘cat’ command.
  • Add content to the file.
  • Copy content of one file to another.


Example to see the content of a file using ‘cat’ command.

Suppose you want to see the content of file ‘group’ in Linux Terminal then type the command ‘cat  /etc/group’ and then press enter.


Example to create a file using ‘cat’ command.

Suppose you want to create a file ‘tork.txt’. Then type the following command in the Linux terminal ‘cat  >  tork.txt’. Here symbol ‘>’ is used along with cat command to create a file in Linux using ‘cat’ command.


Example to add content in the file using ‘cat’ command.

If you want to add content in a file, then you can use ‘cat’ command with ‘>’ symbol with the file name. Suppose you want to add some content in the ‘tork.txt’. Then type the command ‘cat > tork.txt’ and then press enter. Now you have to write the content. Then to come out from content writing area type ‘Ctrl + C’ and then press enter.

To view the content, you have added in the file type ‘cat tork.txt’.



Example to copy the content of one file to another using ‘cat’ command.

Suppose you want to create a file ‘passwd.txt’ which contains content of already created file ‘passwd’. Then type the command ‘cat /etc/passwd > passwd.txt’. Here ‘/etc/passwd’ is the path of ‘passwd’ and ‘passwd.txt’ is the name of the new file you want to create.



10. ‘less’ Command Meaning in Linux


The command ‘less’ is used to display the content of the file but not like ‘cat’ command we have seen previously. The command ‘cat’ display content in the terminal but in the case of ‘less’ command you are viewing the content inside the file, not in the terminal.

How will I go to the next page, the previous page and search for anything on the page when I am viewing the content of a file with the help of ‘less’ command?

Go to the next page by pressing ‘Ctrl + f’.

Go to the previous page by pressing ‘Ctrl + b’.

For searching anything on page type ‘/’ then type anything you want to search and then press enter. E.g., ‘/book’.



11. ‘|’ Pipe Command Meaning in Linux


The symbol of the pipe command is ‘|’. This command is used to combine two or more commands in the Linux terminal.

Suppose that you want to display the result of ‘ls’ command with the help of ‘cat’ command then you can combine these command with the help of ‘|’ pipe command. E.g., ‘ls –l  | cat’.




12. ‘>’ Redirect Command Meaning in Linux


Redirect command is used to take the output of a command and save it to a file.

For example, if you want to take the output of a ‘ls’ command and save it to a file ‘ls.txt’ then type the command ‘ls > ls.txt’.





What do you think about Linux distributions?

Which Linux distribution is your favourite one?

Hope my article helps you in understanding the Linux operating system in a much interesting way.

Please let me know by leaving your comment below. I am waiting for your reply.